||1. High-throughput screening approaches have been adopted throughout the pharmaceutical industry to aid in the rapid discovery of new chemical entities. [...] 2. With the increasing numbers of compounds requiring screening, DMPK optimization methods have had to be adapted for high throughput. [...] 3. In vitro and in silico (computer-based) methods have proven most amenable to high-throughput approaches and these will firm the bulk of the review, but some advances with in vivo methods will also be discussed. [...] 4. Most high-throughput methods would not be possible without the enabling technologies of computing, automation, new sample preparation technologies, and highly sensitive and selective detection systems, and these will also be reviewed. 5. The advantages and disadvantages of the screening methods will be presented, in particular the issue of handling the false-positives and -negatives that arise. 6. In concluding the review, future developments in this field will be discussed along with key issues that will need to be addressed.