The Three Rs and Biomedical Research

Knowledge Source Identification
Knowledge source name The Three Rs and Biomedical Research
Owner/Developer Science
Country United States of America
Languages English
Description In 1959, British scientists William M. S. Russell and Rex L. Burch wrote that scientific excellence and humane use of laboratory animals are inextricably linked. In The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique,* they described the "three Rs"-reduction, refinement, and replacement-of animal use in the life sciences, concepts now known as "alternatives." Legislation mandating the incorporation of the three Rs into animal research and testing has been passed in the United States and Europe. Because some scientists view discussion of altematives as driven exclusively by political and social forces rather than by scientific considerations, an international group of scientists prominent in the alternatives field met at a May 1995 workshop to reaffirm the scientific basis of the three Rs and to discuss how these concepts can best be disseminated to the scientific community.
Knowledge Source Category
Category Publication
Sub categories Press release
Knowledge Dissemination and Sharing
Dissemination channel Website, Printed
Targeted audience (specified/objective analysis) Scientists, Industry, Researchers
Users access Open access
Knowledge Characterization
3Rs relevance Replacement, Reduction, Refinement
Purpose Documentation and information