||The aim of this position paper of the European Medical Research Councils (EMRC), the Standing Committee for Medical Sciences at the European Science Foundation (ESF), is to provide continuing input into developments resulting from the new European Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. The second ESF-EMRC position paper, published in March 2009, was a key factor in raising awareness of the implications of the revised Directive amongst scientists, research funders, corporate research organisations and patient groups, and informing the process of revising the Directive. This new paper is aimed at the same audience. It summarises the current status of the Directive and looks forward to the next crucially important stage during which the Directive will be transposed into law and then fully implemented in the Member States. This paper builds on previous work of the ESF1,2,3 and draws on documents produced by ESF member organisations at the various stages of the consultationprocess for the revision of this Directive. The key reference document for this paper is the Directive that was formally adopted by the European Parliament on 8 September 2010.