||In Vitro Toxicology Systems brings together important issues and considerations needed in order to develop a workable, reliable, integrated testing strategy for the replacement of animals in toxicity testing regimes. This thorough volume includes sections on in vitro models for systemic organ toxicity, neurotoxicity, sensory organs, immunotoxicity and reproductive toxicity and addresses how stem cells may be used going forward. The book also tackles difficult areas of toxicology such as carcinogenicity and nanotoxicology, with additional chapters dedicated to kinetics, metabolism, and in vitro in vivo extrapolation. The book also addresses biological processes such as stress response pathways and mechanistic biomarkers and how these can be uncovered and measured using high content approaches. Reliable and authoritative, In Vitro Toxicology Systems will be of benefit not only to students, scientists and regulators working in the field of chemical safety assessment but also to a wider scientific audience.